• China does not treat institutional and informational warfare as optional or interesting adjuncts to traditional notions of warfare. In fact, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) plays a central and even dominant role in leading influence and information doctrine and operations.
  • These nonmaterial approaches are essential to the Chinese strategy and have real-world objectives and outcomes that are often similar or identical to those that could be achieved through (material) force.
  • The US and allied Defense establishments are well positioned to work with the rest of government to play a similarly central role, not only in countering the Chinese use of political warfare but in leading national and allied efforts to responsibly and ethically deploy political warfare to achieve defense and national objectives and outcomes.